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Metal columns are structural elements of a building necessary for supporting floors, arches and beams. The columns are made of long products. For production, black steel is used.
Elements of steel columns
Heading. It represents the upper part of the column, which serves to absorb the external load and its transmission to the rod. To perform this function, the heads are designed taking into account the beams or trusses resting on them, as well as the features of their fastening. When designing, calculations are made of the cross section of the column rod, the thickness of the support sheet, the length of the stiffeners and welds.
Kernel. It is the middle part of the column, transferring the load from the tip to the base. The rods are designed taking into account the equidistance of the support. This principle implies that the flexibility with respect to the main axes of the section must be equal. Compliance with this requirement provides savings in the consumption of building material and the stability of the support. In the manufacture of powerful columns of large cross section, the installation of transverse stiffeners is necessary.
Base. It is the bottom of the column, the main function of which is to transfer the load and its distribution to the foundation. It is necessary for fixing the support to the base. The base is designed taking into account the area and thickness of the backing sheet, as well as the type of foundation material. There are two types of such elements: with a milled end or a traverse (distribution structure).